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Additional External Costs Analysis and Environmental CBA
Pages 43-54

Zinaida Dimitrijević and Iris Salihbegovic

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1929-6002.2017.06.02.1

Published: 29 September 2017


Abstract: The sustainable development requires policies and measures which negative impacts would not be spilled over on another area or has trends that pose severe or irreversible threats to future quality of life. The environmental costs-benefits analysis (CBA) as well as multi criteria analyse are the most common used methods for the decision making processes including the approved methodology for quantifying external costs especially regarding air quality. Since the reducing one type of external cost generates another external cost due to fact that the problem is only shifted from the one area to the another CBA is not enough for the decision making process because external cost of a future implemented measure isn't considered. By the usage of Life-cycle costing (LCC), a tool which evaluates the costs of an new installed asset imposed trough the adopted policy or measure throughout its life cycle, it is possible beside the common costs for conducting CBA include also the end-of-life and disposal costs as the new installed asset’s external costs too. These costs have to be calculated and added to the cost side of CBA before comparing to the benefits. So, for the purpose of decision making process of the retrofitting existing thermal power plants with DeSOx such calculation has been done as a case study for one thermal power plant in Bosnia and Herzegovina highlighting overall costs and benefits of the DeSOx installation.

Keywords: Environmental CBA, external costs, LCC, retrofitting, cogeneration.

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Characterisation of Neem and Jatropha Curcas Oils and their Blends with Kerosene for Combustion in Liquid Bio Fuels Cooking Stoves
Pages 55-65

Adamu A. Shanono, Ibraheem S. Diso and Isa Garba

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1929-6002.2017.06.02.2

Published: 29 September 2017


Abstract: The characterisation of raw vegetable oils of neem and jatropha curcas seeds was experimentally carried out in order to obtain requisite data for the design process of liquid bio fuels cooking stoves. Properties of nineteen vegetable oils/kerosene blends including the kerosene sample were also experimentally determined for the purpose of testing the designed and developed bio stoves that utilised these fuel/oils blends as fuels. Results of the characterisation revealed that the kinematic viscosity of jatropha oil (57.6 mm2/s) was 36 times more than the viscosity of the kerosene sample (1.6 mm2/s). On the other hand, the viscosity of neem oil (62.6 mm2/s) was 39 times greater than that of the kerosene sample. In addition, the density of jatropha curcas oil (860 kg/m3) was more than that of the kerosene (760 kg/m3) by 13.16%, while the density of neem oil (890 kg/m3) exceeded that of kerosene sample by 17.11%; all the tests were conducted at 30oC. Meanwhile, the acid number values of jatropha (1.2 mg KOH/g) and neem (3.1 mg KOH/g) oils did not meet the ASTM D6751 acid number standard specification, and only jatropha curcas oil satisfied the DIN 51605 specification. Blending of the oils with kerosene ensured that all the kerosene/jatropha oil blends met the DIN 51605 specification, however only six kerosene/neem oil blends (10% to 60% concentrations) satisfied the requirement. Moreover, among all the kerosene/oils blends, only the 10% and 20% jatropha and 10% neem oils concentrations in the blends met the ASTM D6751 standard acid number specification. .

Keywords: Biomass, Vegetable Oil, Standard Specification, Test Method, Wick Stove.

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Study in Cationic Micellar Effect on Photogalvanics: Cetyl Pyridinium Chloride- Ethylene Diamine Tetra Acetic Acid – Safranine O System for Solar Energy Conversion and Storage
Pages 71-79

Prerna Gangotri and K.M. Gangotri

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1929-6002.2017.06.02.4

Published: 29 September 2017


Abstract: The Object of the Study is to observe the enhancement on photogalvanics in presence of cationic micellar species i.e. cetyl pyridinium chloride in photogalvanic cell for solar energy conversion and storage. The photogalvanic system provides the higher values in maximum current value 225.0 µA as compare to 15.0 µA in without micellar system. The power at power point of the cell is 28.12 µW as compare to 3.00 µW and storage capacity of cationic micellar system is 25.0 min. as compare to 11.0 minutes in without micellar photogalvanic cell. The conversion efficiency and i-V characteristics of the cells have been determined and a mechanism has also been proposed for the generation of electricity in photogalvanic cells having cationic micellar species and without micellar system.

Keywords: Photogalvanic cell, Storage capacity, Conversion efficiency, Photocurrent, Fill Factor.

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Production and Investigation of Biodiesel Fuels from Spent Coffee Grounds
Pages 66-70

Zinaida Dimitrijević and Iris Salihbegovic

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1929-6002.2017.06.02.3

Published: 29 September 2017


Abstract: The oil fractions, extracted under different conditions fromspent coffee grounds, were used to produce biodieselfuels and investigate their FAME profiles.For producing of fuels, esterification and transesterification of oilswith homogeneous catalysts were applied. Investigation of the esters composition (FAME) in biodiesel is carried out by modifiedgas chromatographic method EN 14103. The content of each individual ester was calculated using the method of internal standard. The results of total and individual FAME content in all studied objects are shown. The results show the feedstocks and extractionconditions (catalysts, temperatures) for obtaining the biodiesel with high yield and balanced composition.

Keywords: Coffee oil, spent coffee grounds, microwave irradiation, biodiesel feedstock, fatty acid methyl esters, gas chromatography.

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Technological Dimensions of Nearly ZEB Design: Evolving toward a Nearly Zero Energy Oriented Landscape - Pages 80-85

Filippo Angelucci

DOI: https://doi.org/10.6000/1929-6002.2017.06.03.1

Published: 28 February 2018


Abstract: Today, the implementation framework of Zero Energy Building strategies is characterised by a complex transitional phase. In fact, it is still difficult to achieve completely autonomous buildings, disconnected from any power-supply network.

Despite the negative impact of climate-change and the progressive loss of non-renewable resources on our lifestyles, the global economic-financial crisis, local cultural-technological barriers, and the cost/complexity of design processes keep investment in this area unattractive.

However, there is an intermediate approach that can facilitate a gradual re-direction of building actions through the ZEB logic. It can be identified in the alternative of Near Zero Energy Building (Nearly ZEB or Near Net ZEB).

The Nearly ZEB approach, with its multiplicity of design aspects (i.e. cognitive, analytical, technical, and managerial) may configure a widespread state of progressive transition towards the architectural/inhabitable constructions sought by the 20-20-20 logic, at the scale of the building, the city, and the landscape.

These constructions have lower emissions, produce more energy from renewable sources, consume less non-renewable energy, and can “also” reach the objective of total energy autonomy (ZEB) or Plus Energy.

A twofold operating scenario emerges from this point of view. It is centred on the technological dimensions of designing a Nearly Zero Energy living space by overcoming the traditional concept of a building as a single object.

On the one hand, there is a need for a greater interaction between technological innovations and inhabitable spaces, in a trans-scalar key; design becomes an open process of technological-environmental modifications that addresses the transition towards the status of ZEB.

On the another hand, it becomes fundamental that the relationship between interior and exterior space, both public and private, is increasingly focused on the design of interface-systems in order to harmonise three new levels of relations (city-building, city-land, and building-land) and to configure a Nearly Zero Energy Oriented Landscape.

These aspects emerge from the contributions presented in this special issue on The Technological Dimensions of Nearly Zero Energy Building Design and will be addressed in this essay.

Keywords: Nearly ZEB Process, Environmental-Technological Design, Inter-systemic/Trans-scalar Design, Environmental Interfaces, Nearly Zero Energy Oriented Landscape.